1.                  INTRODUCTION


Kiwi or Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia deliciosa) is grown widely in New Zealand, Italy, USA, China, Japan, Australia, France, Chile and Spain.


2.                  OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this report is to present a bankable one acre model for high quality commercial cultivation of the crop. 
3.                  BACKGROUND

3.1              Area & Production


Kiwi is mostly grown in the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, J & K, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Kerala. Having been very newly introduced in the country estimates of area and production have not yet become available.


3.2              Economic Importance

The fruit has high nutritive and medicinal value. It is a rich source of vitamin B & C and minerals like phosphorus, potassium & calcium. Fruits are consumed fresh or combined with other fruits in salads and deserts. It is also used for preparation of squash and wine.


4.                  PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY


4.1              Agro-climatic requirements


Kiwi can be grown in areas experiencing 700-800 chilling hours (no. of hours during which temperature remains at or below 70 C during the winter season). The plant can be grown at 800-1500 m. above m.s.l. A rainfall of about 150 cm. /year is sufficient. The rainfall should be well distributed during the growing period. The plant does not withstand strong winds and frost during the growing period because of its vigorous vegetative growth, large leaves and viny habit. In summer, high temperature (> 350 C) and low humidity may cause scorching of leaves. Sun scald and heat stress are the main problems in its cultivation in lower areas.


Deep, rich, well-drained sandy loam soils are ideal for cultivation of kiwi. A soil pH slightly less than 6.9 results in maximum yield but higher pH upto 7.3 adversely affects the yield due to Mn deficiency.


4.2              Growing and Potential Belts

The crop can come up very well in certain locations of Himachal Pradesh and parts of Kerala. These two states have the potential for commercial cultivation of the crop.


4.3              Varieties Cultivated


Important kiwi varieties cultivated in India are Abbott, Allison, Bruno, Hayward, Monty and Tomuri.


4.4              Land Preparation


Steep land is contoured into terraces for planting vines. The rows are to be oriented in a north-south direction to avail maximum sunlight. A thorough preparation of soil is essential for the successful establishment of its vineyard. Preparation of pits, mixture of farmyard manure and filling of pits are to be completed by December.


4.5              Planting


4.5.1        Planting Material


Plants are mostly propagated vegetatively through cuttings and grafting.


4.5.2        Planting season


Planting is usually done in the month of January. The planting should be done at the same depth at which the plants were growing in the nursery. The soil should be firmly placed around the roots. The plants are pruned hard to about 30 cm. to encourage vigorous growth.


4.5.3        Spacing


Planting distance varies according to variety and system of training. Usually, T-bar and pergola system are adopted for planting. In T-bar , a spacing of 4 m. from row to row and 5-6 m. from plant to plant is common whereas in pergola system, a spacing of 6 m. from row to row should be maintained.


4.6              Nutrition


A fertilizer dose of 20 kg. farmyard manure (basal dose), 0.5 kg. NPK mixture containing 15% N is recommended for application every year. After 5 years of age, 850-900 g. N , 500-600 g. P , 800-900 g. K and farmyard manure should be applied every year.


Kiwi requires high Cl because its deficiency adversely affects the growth of shoot and roots. In contrast, excess levels of B and Na are harmful. The N fertilizer should be applied in two equal doses, half to two-thirds in January-February and the rest after fruit set in April-May. In young vines the fertilizer is mixed in the soil within the periphery of the vine, and for the matured vine it is broadcast evenly over the entire soil surface.


4.7              Training


Training is required to establish and maintain a well-formed framework of main branches and fruiting arms. The supporting branches are erected even before planting the vines or thereafter as early as possible. Three types of supporting structures (fences) are constructed. A single wire fence is commonly adopted though another wire is sometimes provided and then structure takes the form of kniffin system. One 2.5 mm. thick tensile wire is strung on the top of pillars which are 1.8-2.0 m. high above the ground. The pillars are made of wood, concrete or iron and are erected at a distance of 6m. from each other in a row. The wire tension at installation should not be over-strained otherwise wire can break at knot due to crop load. A cross arm (1.5 m.) on the pole also carries two outrigger wires. This training is known as T-bar or overhead trellis/telephone system. The laterals arising from the main branch are trained on canopy of three wires.


A flat topped network or criss-cross wires are prepared to train vines on pergola or bower system. The system is costly and difficult to manage but gives higher yield.


4.8                          Irrigation


Irrigation is provided during September-October when the fruit is in initial stage of growth and development. Irrigation at 10-15 days interval has been found to be beneficial.


4.9              Intercultural Operations


Inter-cultural operations are carried out on regular basis to remove the weeds.


4.10          Inter-cropping


Inter-cropping with vegetables and leguminous crops is beneficial during the initial five years of plantation.
4.11          Plant Protection Measures
No serious pest and disease incidence on the crop has been reported so far. 

4.12          Harvesting and Yield


Kiwi vine starts bearing at the age of 4-5 years while the commercial production starts at the age of 7-8 years. The fruits mature earlier at lower altitude and later at high altitudes because of variation in temperature. Large sized berries are harvested first while smaller ones are allowed to increase in size. After harvesting, the fruits are rubbed with a coarse cloth to remove stiff hairs found on their surface. Hard fruits are transported to the market. Subsequently, they lose their firmness in two weeks and become edible.


On an average, the fruit yield varies from 50-100 kg. /vine. Vines on trellis produce about 25 tonnes/ha. after 7 years.


5.                  POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT


5.1              Grading


Fruits are graded on the basis of their weight. Fruits weighing 70 g. and above are graded as A-grade fruits and between 40-70 g. as B grade fruits.


5.2              Storage


Kiwi fruits have an excellent keeping quality. The fruits can be kept in good condition in a cool place without refrigeration upto 8 weeks. It can be kept for 4-6 months in a cold storage at -0.60to 00 C.


5.3              Packing


There is no standard package for kiwi fruits. Cardboard boxes of 3-4 kg. capacity are generally used for packing. Polythene liners in storage cases are very effective in maintaining high humidity and can be used to maintain fruits in good condition for a longer period.


5.4              Transportation


Road transport by trucks/lorries is the most convenient mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market.


5.5              Marketing


Majority of the growers sell their produce either through trade agents at village level or commission agents at the market.


6.                  TECHNOLOGY SOURCES


Major sources for technology are :


(i)                  Assam Agriculture University, Jorhat, Assam-785013.

(ii)                Kerela Agricultural University, Vellanikara, Trichur-680656, Kerela.

(iii)               Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan, Nauni-173230, Himachal Pradesh.




















7.                  ECONOMICS OF A ONE ACRE MODEL


7.1              High quality commercial cultivation of crop by using high quality planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits viz.


                     Synchronized growth, flowering and harvesting;

                     Reduction in variation of off-type and non-fruit plants;

                     Improved fruit quality;


Costs & Returns


7.2              A one acre plantation of the crop is a viable proposition. The major cost components of such a model are given in the table below: The project cost works out to Rs. 2.50 lakhs (vide Annexure I & II).


Cost Components of a One Acre Model KIWI Plantation


(Amount in Rs.)

Sl. No.


Proposed Expenditure


Cultivation Expenses




Cost of planting material (4x5m)




Manures & fertilizers




Insecticides & pesticides




Cost of Labour




Others, if any, (Power)




Sub Total







Tube-well/submersible pump




Cost of Pipeline




Others, if any




Sub Total



Cost of Drip/Sprinkler







Store & Pump House




Labour room




Agriculture Equipments/ Implements




Others, if any (Training Structure)




Sub Total



Land Development




Soil leveling












Others, if any, please specify




Sub Total



Grand Total


N.B.: Cost of land, if newly purchased, can be included in the project. This will

be limited to 10% of the total project cost.


7.3              The major components of the model are:


                     Land Development: (Rs. 4.0 thousand): This is the cost of shaping and dressing the land site.

                     Fencing (Rs. 29.6 thousand): It is necessary to guard the orchard from animals etc. by a barbed wire fencing.

                     Irrigation Infra-structure (Rs. 50.0 thousand): For effective working with drip irrigation system, it is necessary to install a tube-well with diesel/electric pumpset and SI motor. This is post cost of tube-well.

                     Drip Irrigation (Rs. 20.0 thousand): This is average cost of one acre drip system. The actual cost will vary depending on location, plant population and plot geometry.

                     Equipments/Implements (Rs. 5.0 thousand): Improved manually/power operated essential implements and equipment.

                     Building and Storage (Rs. 30.0 thousand): A one acre orchard would require minimally a grading/packing room cum- pump house and a labour room.

                     Cost of Cultivation (Rs. 21.4 thousand): Land preparation and planting operations will involve 83 days of manual labour, the cost of which will come to Rs. 5.80 thousand. The cost of planting material works out to Rs. 4.0 thousand i.e. 200 grafts @ Rs. 20 per graft.

                     Training structure for plants (Rs. 90 thousand) vide para 4.7


7.4              Capital costs are high in hill areas where the crop is cultivated as compared to plain areas. Labour cost has been put at an average of Rs. 70 per man-day. The actual cost will vary from location to location depending upon minimum wage levels or prevailing wage levels for skilled and unskilled labour.







Since the orchard would be start giving yield from 4th year onwards, it is proposed to take up inter-cropping in the initial years particularly of vegetables which would cost RS. 10000/- per acre and would yield on average 6 tonnes/acre. Valued at Rs.30.00 thousand.


7.5              Recurring Production Cost: Recurring production costs are exhibited in Annexure III. The main components are planting material, land preparation, inputs application (FYM, fertilizers, micro-nutrients liming material, plant protection chemicals etc.), power and labour on application of inputs, inter-cultural and other farm operations.


7.6              Returns from the Project: The yield from the plantation is obtained from fourth year onwards. The yield per acre increases from 5 tonnes in 4th year to 8 tonnes in 7th year. Valued at Rs. 18000 per tonne the return goes up from Rs. 90 thousand to Rs. 144 thousand (Vide Annexure-III).


Project Financing


7.7              Balance Sheet: The projected balance sheet of the model is given at Annexure IV. There would be three sources of financing the project as below:


Source Rupees


Farmers share (50%) 125.00

Capital subsidy (20%) 50.00 Term loan (30%) 75.00

Total 250.00

7.8              Profit & Loss Account: The cash flow statement may be seen in Annexure V. Annexure VI projects the profit and loss account of the model. Gross profit goes up from Rs.39.60 thousand in post operative year 1 to Rs. 65.9 thousand in post operative year 5.


7.9              Repayment of Term Loan: The term loan will be repaid in eleven equated 6 monthly installments of Rs. 6.82 thousand with a moratorium of 48 months. The rate of interest would have to be negotiated with the financing bank. It has been put at 12% in the model (vide Annexures VII & VII A).


7.10          Annexure VIII gives depreciation calculations.


Project Viability:


7.11          IRR/BCR: The viability of the project is assessed in Annexure IX. The IRR works out to 24.19 and the BCR to 1.7 over a post-operative period of 15 years.


7.12          The Debt Service coverage ratio calculations are presented in Annexure X. The average DSCR works out to 3.75.


7.13          Payback Period: On the basis of costs and returns of the model, the pay back period is estimated at 6.71 years (vide Annexure XI).


7.14          Break-even Point: The break even point will be reached in the third year. At this point fixed cost would work out to 71.5% of gross sales (vide Annexure XII).