1.                  INTRODUCTION


Guava (Psidium guajava) is one of the important commercial fruits in India. It is the fourth most important fruit after mango, banana and citrus.


2.                  OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this report is to present a bankable one-acre model for high quality commercial cultivation of the crop. 
3.                  BACKGROUND
3.1              Origin
Guava is native to tropical America where it occurs wild. It was introduced in India in the seventeen century. 

3.2              Area & Production


The area under guava cultivation in India increased by 64% from 94 thousand ha. in 1991-92 to 155 thousand ha. in 2001-02 whereas the production increased by 55% from 11 lakh tones to 17 lakh tonnes. Major guava producing states include Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. (Vide Table-1)











Table-1: State-wise Area, Production & Productivity

of Guava during 2001-02




(‘000 Ha.)


(‘000 MT)















Uttar Pradesh




West Bengal




Andhra Pradesh
























Source: Database of National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture , Govt. of India.


3.3              Economic Importance

The fruit is a good source of vitamin C, pectin, calcium and phosphorus. The fruit is used for the preparation of processed products like jams, jellies and nectar.  Guava jelly puree is very popular for its attractive purplish-red colour, pleasant taste and aroma.  The puree can be used in juice, cakes, puddings, sauces, ice-cream, jam and jelly.  Fruits can be preserved by canning as halves or quarters, with or without seed core (shells). Good quality salad can be prepared from the shell of ripe fruits.


Leaves of guava are used for curing diarrhoea and also for dyeing and tanning.


4.1              Demand and Supply patterns


Guava fruits are consumed either fresh or processed. Only 0.05% of the produce is being exported to foreign countries.


4.2              Export/Import Trends


U.S.A., U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Netherlands, Kuwait, Jordan etc. are the countries importing guava from India. The trend in export of guava from India during the period 1999-2000 to 2001-02 is given in Graph-3.

Table-2: Country-wise export of  guava from India during 2001-02.






(Rs.  in lakhs)







Saudi Arabia





















 Source: APEDA, New Delhi















4.3              Analysis and Future Strategy


Guava fruits have very short shelf life making it difficult for distant marketing.  For long distance transportation, use of refrigerated transport and also proper packaging and cushioning material is required to enhance the shelf life of fruits. 


The processing industry for guava needs to be developed in order to lower the marketing costs and reduce wastage and losses in the production chain. 


Guavas can be dehydrated and powdered.  Two types of wine, viz. guava juice wine and guava pulp wine can be manufactured from ripe fruits.  Good quality ready-to-serve beverage can be made from guava.  The seeds contain 5-13% oil which is rich in essential fatty acid and can be used in salad dressing. 


5.                  PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY


5.1              Agro-Climatic Requirements


Guava is grown in both tropical and sub-tropical regions upto 1,500 m. above m.s.l. It tolerates high temperatures and drought conditions prevalent in north India in summers.  However, it is susceptible to severe frost as it can kill the young plants. An annual rainfall of about 100 cm. is sufficient during the rainy season (July-September). Rainfall during the harvesting period deteriorates the quality of fruits.


Heavy clay to very light sandy soils having pH between 4.5-8.2 are suitable for cultivation of guava. Good quality guavas are produced in river basins. The crop is sensitive to water-logging.

5.2              Growing and Potential Belts

The state-wise growing belts are given in the following:



Growing belts

Andhra Pradesh

East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur, Krishna, Ananthapur, Medak, Ranga Reddy, Mahaboob nagar, Prakasham, Khammam

Madhya Pradesh

Jabalpur, Ujjain, Hoshangabad, Khargone, Badwani, Indore, Shivpuri


Raipur, Durg, Jabalpur


Satara, Beed, Pune, Ahmed nagar, Aurangabad, Amravati


Bhavnagar, Ahmedabad


Kolar, Shimoga, Dharwar, Raichur, Bangalore (R & U), Belgaum

Tamil Nadu

Madurai, Dindigul, Salem


Ranchi, Lohardaga, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Dhanbad

West Bengal

South 24 Parganas, North 24 Parganas, Hooghly

Uttar Pradesh

Allahabad, Farukhabad, Aligarh, Badaun


5.3              Varieties Cultivated


Important guava varieties cultivated in different states of India are given below :




Varieties grown

Andhra Pradesh


Allahabad safeda, Lucknow 49, Anakapalli, Banarasi, Chittidar, Hafshi, Sardar, Smooth Green, Safed Jam, Arka Mridula

Madhya Pradesh


L-49, Allahabad safeda, Gwalior-27, Hafshi, Seedless Chittidar



L-49, Allahabad safeda



Allahabad Safeda, L-49, Araka Mridula, Araka Amulya, Bangalore, Dharwar



Am Sophri, Madhuri Am, Safrior Payere

Bihar & Jharkhand


Allahabad Safeda, Apple Colour, Chittidar, Hafshi, Harijha, Sardar, Selection-8

Maharashtra & Gujarat


Nagpur seedless, Dharwar, Dholka, Kothrud, L-24, L-49, Nasik, Sindh

North-eastern States


Allahabad Safeda, Sardar, Red Fleshed.

Tamil Nadu


Anakapalli, Banarasi, Bangalore, Chittidar, Hafshi, Nagpur Seedless, Smooth Green

Uttar Pradesh


L-49, Allahabad Safeda, Lucknow Safeda, Apple Colour, Chittidar, Red Fleshed, Allahabad Surkha, Sardar, Mirzapuri Seedless, CISH-G-1, CISH-G-2, CISH-G-3

West Bengal


L-49, Allahabad Safeda, Dudhe Khaja, Gole Khaja, Kabli, Baruipur, Chittidar, Harijha, Sardar

5.4              Land Preparation


Land is prepared during the summer season by ploughing, harrowing, leveling and removing weeds.


5.5              Planting


5.5.1                 Planting Material


Plants are vegetatively propagated by budding, inarching or air layering.


5.5.2                 Planting Season


Planting is done during the rainy season. June-July is the ideal time for planting the layers and seedling.


5.5.3                 Spacing


The plants are usually planted at a distance of 5-8 m. The exact planting distance is decided according to variety, soil fertility and availability of irrigation facilities.


Standard spacing is 6 m. x 6 m. accommodating 112 plants/acre. By increasing the plant density, productivity can be increased. In the model scheme, a spacing of 6 m. x 6 m. with a population of 110 plants per acre has been considered which was commonly observed in areas covered during a field study.


High density planting causes erect growth of branches making the plant tall, compact and also gives higher yield/unit area in early years of fruiting.


5.5.4                 Planting Method


Square system of planting is generally adopted.  Pits of 1x1x1m. size are dug before the monsoon and filled with a mixture of farmyard manure and soil.


5.6               Nutrition


Time of fertilizer application depends on the region and crop variety. In north India, fertilizer is applied in the first week of May for rainy season crop and in first week of July for winter season crop. The plants are manured twice a year, first during June-July and second by during October.


A fertilizer dose of 600 g. N, 400 g. K in Northern Region, 260 g. N, 320 g. P and 260 g. K in Eastern Region, 900 g. N, 600 g. P and 600 g. K in Southern Region and 600 g. N, 300 g. P and 300g. K/plant /year in Western Region is recommended.


5.7              Irrigation


Guava is mostly grown under rainfed condition.  During winter season, irrigation is provided at an interval of 20-25 days and in the summer months it is provided at an interval of 10-15 days by the ring method.


5.7.1        Drip Irrigation


Drip irrigation has proved to be very beneficial for guava. About 60% of the water used for irrigation is saved.  Besides substantial increase in size and number of fruits is observed.


5.8              Training & Pruning


Training of plants in young stage is essential in order to build a strong framework and to avoid weak crotches. Fruiting trees are pruned to check overcrowding in the orchard. The plants are trained as low headed trees to facilitate multiple hand pickings. Pruning is usually recommended after harvesting or in spring. Summer pruning is generally avoided as the plants get damaged due to sun burn.


5.9              Intercultural Operations


Weeds are usually removed by shallow cultivation. Green manuring is usually done during rainy season. Pre-emergence use of diuron (1.6 kg./ha.), oryzalin (1.67 litres/ha.), simazine (1.6 kg./ha.) or atrazine (1.6 kg./ha.) has been found to be effective in control of weeds in guava orchards.


5.10          Mulching


Dry leaves or straw are used as mulching material. Mulching can also be done either with black polycthylene sheet or with organic materials. Mulching the soil at least twice a year helps in conserving moisture and improving the fruit quality.



5.11          Inter-cropping


Leguminous crops or vegetable can be grown as intercrops during the first three years of planting provided irrigation facility is available.


5.12          Growth Regulators
The winter crop is much superior in quality compared to the monsoon crop. Farmers often reduce monsoon crop by deblossoming to get a higher price.  This is done by growth regulators like maleic hydrazide on spring flush of flowers. Growth regulators like NAA, NAD and 2, 4D have been found to be effective in thinning of flowers and also manipulating the cropping season.
5.13          Plant Protection Measures
5.13.1    Insect Pests
The insect pests mostly observed are fruit fly, stem borer, bark eating caterpillar, thrips, nematodes, mealy bug and scale insect.  Spraying with malathion (2ml.), phosphamidon (0.5ml. per ltr. of water), monocrotophos, dimethoate etc. has been found to be effective in most cases.  Apart from that adoption of suitable cultural practices and destruction of infected plants needs to be done.
5.13.2    Diseases


The main diseases reported are wilt, fruit canker, fruit rot, anthrachose and grey leaf spot.  Application of Carbendazim / Thiophanate methyl (1g./l) or Kavach / Mancozeb (2 g/l) depending upon the type of infection has been found to be effective in controlling the diseases.


5.13.3    Disorders


Fruit drop is a serious disorder in guava resulting in about 45-65% loss due to different physiological and environmental factors.  Spraying of GA has been found to be effective in reducing the fruit drop in guava.  


Bronzing of guava has been observed in places having low soil fertility and low pH. Affected plants show purple to red specks scattered all over the leaves. Under aggravated condition, total defoliation and fruits characterized with brown coloured patterns on the skin, with reduced yield are noticed.

Foliar application of 0.5% diammonium phosphate and zinc sulphate in combination at weekly intervals for two months reduces the bronzing in guava. Pre-flowering sprays with 0.4% boric acid and 0.3% zinc sulphate increase the yield and fruit size. Spraying of copper sulphate at 0.2 to 0.4% also increases the growth and yield of guava.


5.14          Harvesting  and Yield


The plants start bearing at an early age of 2-3 years but they attain full bearing capacity at the age of 8-10 years. The yield of a plant depends on its age, cropping pattern and the cultural practices. A 10 year old plant yields about 100 to 150 kg. of fruits every year. If both rainy and winter season crops are taken, more yields may be obtained in the rainy season.


Guavas are harvested throughout the year (except during May and June) in one or the other region of the country. However, peak harvesting periods in north India are August for rainy season crop, November- December for winter season crop and March-April for spring season crop. In the mild climatic conditions of the other parts of the country, the peak harvesting periods are not so distinct.


Guava fruits develop best flavour and aroma only when they ripen on tree. In most of the commercial varieties, the stage of fruit ripeness is indicated by the colour development which is usually yellow. For local markets, fully yellow but firm fruits are harvested, whereas half yellow fruits are picked for distant markets.  Fruits are harvested selectively by hand along with the stalk and leaves.


6.                  POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT


6.1              Grading


Fruits are graded on the basis of their weight, size and colour.


6.2              Storage


The fresh fruit has a short shelf life and distant marketing can be done only if it is properly stored.


The shelf life can be extended upto 20 days by keeping them at low temperature of 50 C and 75-85% relative humidity. It can be stored for about 10 days at room temperature (180-230 C) in polybags providing a ventilation of 0.25%.


6.3              Packing


The fruits are packed in baskets made from locally available plant material. For distant markets, wooden or corrugated fibre board boxes are used along with cushioning materials viz. paddy straw, dry grass, guava leaves or rough paper. Good ventilation is necessary to check build up of heat. Guava is a delicate fruit requiring careful handling during harvesting and transportation.


Guavas being perishable in nature are immediately sent after harvesting in the local market and only a small quantity is being sent to the distant markets.


6.4              Marketing


Majority of the cultivation sell their produce either through trade agents at village level or commission agents at the market.


6.5              Transportation


Road transport by trucks / lorries is the most convenient mode of transport due to easy approach from orchards to the market.


7.                  TECHNOLOGY SOURCES


Major sources for technology are:


(i)                  Horticulture Department, Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh-482004.


(ii)                Department of Horticulture, Birsa Agriculture University, Kanke [Tel : (0651) 2230691]


(iii)               Horticulture & Agro-forestry Reseach Programme (ICAR), Plandu, Ranchi, [Tel : (0651) 2260141, 2260207]


(iv)              Uttar Pradesh State Horticulture Co-operative Federation, 18-B, Ashok Marg, Lucknow.


(v)                Uttar Pradesh Council of Agriculture Research, Mandi Bhawan, Vibhuti Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow.


(vi)              Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh – 224229


(vii)             Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hassaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore, Karnataka – 560089.


(viii)           Progressive Farmers of Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Jhakhand & West Bengal.

8.                  ECONOMICS OF A ONE ACRE MODEL


8.1              High quality commercial cultivation of the crop by using improved planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits viz.


·                     Synchronized  growth, flowering and harvesting;

·                     Reduction in variation of off-type and non-fruit plants;

·                     Improved fruit quality;

·                     Early maturity;

·                     Increase in average productivity;

·                     Economy in water application and high water use efficiency;

·                     High fertilizer use efficiency;

·                     Minimum incidence of pests and diseases.


Costs & Returns:


8.2              A one acre plantation of the crop is a highly viable proposition.  The cost components of such a model along with the basis for costing are exhibited in Annexures I & II.   A summary is given in the figure below.  The project cost works out to around Rs.1.25 lakhs / Acre.



            Project Cost:

                                                                                                               (Amount in Rs.)

Sl. No.


Proposed Expenditure


Cultivation Expenses




Cost of planting material




Manures & fertilizers




Insecticides & pesticides




Cost of Labour




Others, if any, (Power)










Tube-well/submersible pump




Cost of Pipeline




Others, if any, please specify






Cost of Drip/Sprinkler









Pump house & Labour shed




Labour room & godown




Agriculture Equipments




Others, if any (Drying platform)






Land Development




Soil Leveling












Others, if any, please specify







Land, if newly purchased (Please indicate the year)



Grand Total


            @Cost of newly purchased land will be limited to 10% of the total project cost.


8.3              The major components of the model are:


·                     Land Development:  (Rs.4.0 thousand):  This is the labour cost of shaping and dressing the land site.


·                     Fencing (Rs.29.50 thousand):  It is necessary to guard the orchard by suitable fencing to safeguard the valuable produce from poaching.


·                     Irrigation Infra-structure (Rs.40 thousand):  For effective working with drip irrigation system, it is necessary to install a bore well with diesel/electric pumpset and motor.  This is part cost of tube-well.


·                     Drip Irrigation & Fertigation System (Rs.20 thousand):  This is average cost of one acre drip system for guava inclusive of the cost of fertigation equipment.  The actual cost will vary depending on location, plant population and plot geometry.


·                     Equipment/Implements (Rs.1.0 thousand):  For investment on improved manually operated essential implements a provision of another Rupees one thousand is included.


·                     Building and Storage (Rs.10 thousand):  A one acre orchard would require minimally a labour shed and a grading/packing room cum pump house.


·                     Cost of cultivation (Rs.20.50 thousand):  This is to cover costs of land preparation and sowing operations, planting material, inputs and power (Annexure-III).


8.4              Labour cost has been put at an average of Rs. 70 per man-day.  The actual cost will vary from location to location depending upon minimum wage levels or prevailing wage levels for skilled and unskilled labour.


8.5              Recurring Production Cost:            Recurring costs and returns are exhibited in Annexure-III.  The main components are planting material, land preparation, inputs .application (FYM, fertilizers, liming material, plant growth regulators, plant protection chemicals etc.), labour cost on application of inputs & inter-cultural and other farm operations, power, harvesting, packing and transportation charges.  Inter cropping upto 4th year would also be taken in the project.


8.6              The total development cost in the first two years and recurring production cost from year 3 onwards for a one acre orchard works out as below:




                                    Year 1                                      21.00

                                    Year 2                                      25.50

                                    Year 3                                      30.00  

                                    Year 4                                      32.10

                                    Year 5                                      24.90

                                    Year 6                                      24.90

                                    Year 7                                      25.90

                                    Year 8 onwards                       27.00


8.7              Returns from the Project:  The yield from the plantation is estimated at 3.00 tonnes in the first year of bearing rising to 6 tonnes.  The value of the produce accordingly increases from Rs.24.00 thousand to Rs.54.00 thousand, (vide Annexure III).   The inter-crop of vegetables is expected to fetch an income of Rs. 30,000  in the second year and Rs. 25000 per annum in the subsequent two years.



Project Financing:


8.8.            Balance Sheet:  The projected balance sheet of the model is given at Annexure IV.  There would be three sources of financing the project as below:


                           Source                                              Rs. Thousand


                        Farmer’s share                                               62.50

                        Capital subsidy                                               25.00

                        Term loan                                                        37.50

                        Total                                                                125.00


8.9.            Profit & Loss Account:  The cash flow statement may be seen in Annexure V and   Annexure VI projects the profit and loss account of the model.  A gross profit of Rs. 19.0 thousand is realised in the first year itself.


8.10.        Repayment of Term Loan:   The term loan will be repaid in 6 years at 6 monthly intervals installments with a moratorium of 36 months.  The rate of interest would have to be negotiated with the financing bank. It has been put at 12% in the model (vide Annexure VII ).  The repayment schedule has been presented at Annexure-VII A. 


8.11          Depreciation calculations are given in Annexure VIII.


Project Viability:


8.12          IRR/BCR:  The viability of the project is assessed in Annexure IX over a period of 5 years.  The IRR works out to 19.92 and the BCR to 1.1.


8.13          The Debt Service coverage ratio calculations are presented in Annexure X.  The average DSCR works out to 2.18. 


8.14          Payback Period:  On the basis of costs and returns of the model, the pay back period is estimated at 7.54 years (vide Annexure XI). 


8.15          Break-even Point:  The break even point will be reached in the 3rd year.  At this point fixed cost would work out to 77% of gross sales - vide Annexure XII.